Transport Phenomena, Revised 2ed (An Indian Adaptation) (2022)

Preface to the Adapted Edition

About the Adapting Authors

Preface

Chapter 0 Introduction to Transport Phenomena

  • What are the Transport Phenomena?
  • Mechanisms of Transport Phenomena
  • Three Levels at Which Transport Phenomena can be Studied
  • The Concept of a Continuum
  • Conservation Laws: Mass, Momentum, and Energy

Part 1: Momentum Transport

Chapter 1 Viscosity and the Mechanisms of Momentum Transport

  • Molecular Momentum Transport
  • Convective Momentum Transport
  • Pressure and Temperature Dependence of Viscosity
  • Molecular Theory of the Viscosity of Gases at Low Density
  • Molecular Theory of the Viscosity of Liquids
  • Viscosity of Suspensions and Emulsions

Chapter 2 Shell Momentum Balances and Velocity Distributions in Laminar Flow

  • Shell Momentum Balances and Boundary Conditions
  • Flow of a Falling Film on an Inclined Flat Plate
  • Flow Through a Vertical Circular Tube
  • Flow Through an Annulus
  • Flow of Two Adjacent Immiscible Fluids
  • Laminar Slit Flow with Stationary and with a Moving Wall (“Plane Couette Flow”)
  • Flow Around a Sphere

Chapter 3 The Equations of Change for Isothermal Systems

  • The Equation of Continuity
  • The Equation of Motion
  • The Equation of Angular Momentum
  • The Equations of Change in terms of the Substantial Derivative
  • Simplified Forms of the Equation of Motion
  • Use of the Equations of Change to Solve Flow Problems
  • Dimensional Analysis of the Equations of Change

Chapter 4 Velocity Distributions with More Than One Independent Variable

  • Two Dimensional and Time-Dependent Flow of Newtonian Fluids
  • Solving Flow Problems Using a Stream Function Vorticity Stream Function and Streamlines
  • Flow of Inviscid Fluids by Use of the Velocity Potential
  • Flow Near Solid Surfaces by Boundary-Layer Theory

Chapter 5 Velocity Distributions in Turbulent Flow

  • Comparisons of Laminar and Turbulent Flows
  • Time-Smoothed Equations of Change for Incompressible Fluids
  • The Time-Smoothed Velocity Profile Near a Wall
  • Empirical Expressions for the Turbulent Momentum Flux
  • Turbulent Flow in Ducts
  • Turbulent Flow in Jets

Chapter 6 Interphase Transport in Isothermal Systems

  • Definition of Friction Factors
  • Friction Factors for Flow in Tubes
  • Friction Factors for Flow Around Spheres
  • Friction Factors for Packed Columns

Chapter 7 Non-Newtonian Liquids

  • Examples of the Behavior of Polymeric Liquids
  • Rheometry and Material Functions
  • Non-Newtonian Viscosity and the Generalized Newtonian Models
  • Elasticity and the Linear Viscoelastic Models

Part 2: Energy Transport

Chapter 8 Thermal Conductivity and the Mechanisms of Energy Transport

  • Molecular Energy Transport
  • Temperature and Pressure Dependence of Thermal Conductivity
  • Theory of Thermal Conductivity of Gases at Low Density
  • Theory of Thermal Conductivity of Liquids
  • Thermal Conductivity of Solids
  • Effective Thermal Conductivity of Composite Solids
  • Convective Transport of Energy
  • Work Associated with Molecular Motions
  • Radiative Transport of Energy

Chapter 9 Shell Energy Balances and Temperature Distributions in Solids and Laminar Flow

  • Shell Energy Balances; Boundary Conditions
  • Heat Conduction through Composite Walls
  • Heat Conduction in a Cooling Fin
  • Heat Conduction from a Sphere to a Stagnant Fluid
  • Heat Conduction with a Nuclear Heat Source
  • Heat Conduction with an Electrical Heat Source
  • Heat Conduction with a Viscous Heat Source
  • Heat Conduction with a Chemical Reaction Heat Source
  • Forced Convection
  • Free Convection

Chapter 10 The Equations of Change for Nonisothermal Systems

  • The Energy Equation
  • The Equation of Mechanical Energy
  • Special Forms of the Energy Equation
  • The Boussinesq Equation of Motion for Forced and Free Convection
  • Use of the Equations of Change to Solve Steady-State Problems
  • Dimensional Analysis of the Equations of Change for Nonisothermal Systems

Chapter 11 Temperature Distributions with More Than One Independent Variable

  • Unsteady Heat Conduction in Solids
  • Steady Heat Conduction in Laminar, Incompressible Flow
  • Steady Potential Flow of Heat in Solids
  • Boundary Layer Theory for Nonisothermal Flow

Chapter 12 Temperature Distributions in Turbulent Flow

  • Time-Smoothed Equations of Change for Incompressible Nonisothermal Flow
  • The Time-Smoothed Temperature Profile Near a Wall
  • Empirical Expressions for the Turbulent Heat Flux Eddy Thermal Conductivity The Mixing-Length Expression of Prandtl and Taylor
  • Temperature Distribution for Turbulent Flow in Tubes
  • Temperature Distribution for Turbulent Flow in Jets
  • Fourier Analysis of Energy Transport in Tube Flow at Large Prandtl Numbers

Chapter 13 Interphase Transport in Nonisothermal Systems

  • Definitions of Heat Transfer Coefficients
  • Analytical Calculations of Heat Transfer Coefficients for Forced Convection Through Tubes and Slits
  • Heat Transfer Coefficients for Forced Convection in Tubes
  • Heat Transfer Coefficients for Forced Convection around Submerged Objects
  • Heat Transfer Coefficients for Forced Convection through Packed Beds
  • Heat Transfer Coefficients for Free and Mixed Convection
  • Heat Transfer Coefficients for Condensation of Pure Vapors on Solid Surfaces

Chapter 14 Energy Transport by Radiation

  • The Spectrum of Electromagnetic Radiation
  • Absorption and Emission at Solid Surfaces
  • Planck’s Distribution Law, Wien’s Displacement Law, and the Stefan–Boltzmann Law
  • Direct Radiation Between Black Bodies in Vacuo at Different Temperatures
  • Radiation Between Nonblack Bodies at Different Temperatures
  • Radiant Energy Transport in Absorbing Media

Part 3: Mass Transport

Chapter 15 Diffusivity and the Mechanisms of Mass Transport

  • Molecular Mass Transport
  • Temperature and Pressure Dependence of Diffusivities
  • Theory of Diffusion in Gases at Low Density
  • Theory of Diffusion in Binary Liquids
  • Theory of Diffusion in Colloidal Suspensions
  • Theory of Diffusion of Polymers
  • Mass and Molar Transport by Convection
  • Summary of Mass and Molar Fluxes
  • The Maxwell–Stefan Equations for Multicomponent Diffusion in Gases at Low Density

Chapter 16 Concentration Distributions in Solids and in Laminar Flow

  • Shell Mass Balances; Boundary Conditions
  • Diffusion Through a Stagnant Gas Film
  • Diffusion with a Heterogeneous Chemical Reaction
  • Diffusion with a Homogeneous Chemical Reaction
  • Diffusion into a Falling Liquid Film (Gas Absorption)
  • Diffusion into a Falling Liquid Film (Solid Dissolution)
  • Diffusion and Chemical Reaction Inside a Porous Catalyst
  • Diffusion in a Three-Component Gas System

Chapter 17 Equations of Change for Multicomponent Systems

  • The Equations of Continuity for a Multicomponent Mixture
  • Summary of the Multicomponent Equations of Change
  • Summary of the Multicomponent Fluxes
  • Use of the Equations of Change for Mixtures
  • Dimensional Analysis of the Equations of Change

Chapter 18 Concentration Distributions with More Than One Independent Variable

  • Time-Dependent Diffusion
  • Steady-State Transport in Binary Boundary Layers
  • Steady-State Boundary Layer Theory for Flow Around Objects
  • Boundary Layer Mass Transport with Complex Interfacial Motion
  • “Taylor Dispersion” In Laminar Tube Flow

Chapter 19 Concentration Distributions in Turbulent Flow

  • Concentration Fluctuations and the Time-Smoothed Concentration
  • Time-Smoothing of the Equation of Continuity of A
  • Semi-Empirical Expressions for the Turbulent Mass Flux Eddy Diffusivity
  • Enhancement of Mass Transfer by a First-Order Reaction in Turbulent Flow
  • Turbulent Mixing and Turbulent Flow with Second-Order Reaction

Chapter 20 Interphase Transport in Nonisothermal Mixtures

  • Definition of Transfer Coefficients in One Phase
  • Analytical Expressions for Mass Transfer Coefficients
  • Correlation of Binary Transfer Coefficients in One Phase
  • Definition of Transfer Coefficients in Two Phases
  • Mass Transfer and Chemical Reactions
  • Combined Heat and Mass Transfer by Free Convection
  • Effects of Interfacial Forces on Heat and Mass Transfer
  • Transfer Coefficients at High Net Mass Transfer Rates
  • Matrix Approximations for Multicomponent Mass Transport

Chapter 21 Macroscopic Balances for Multicomponent Systems

  • The Macroscopic Mass Balances
  • The Macroscopic Momentum and Angular Momentum Balances
  • The Macroscopic Energy Balance
  • The Macroscopic Mechanical Energy Balance
  • Estimation of the Viscous Loss
  • Use of the Macroscopic Balances to Solve Steady-State Problems
  • se of the Macroscopic Balances to Solve Unsteady-State Problems

Chapter 22 Other Mechanisms for Mass Transport

  • The Equation of Change for Entropy
  • The Flux Expressions for Heat and Mass
  • Concentration Diffusion and Driving Forces
  • Applications of the Generalized Maxwell–Stefan Equations
  • Mass Transfer Across Selectively Permeable Membranes
  • Mass Transport in Porous Media
  • Ion Fluxes and Nernst-Planck Equation

Part 4: Computational Transport Phenomena

Chapter 23 Introduction to Computational Transport Phenomena

  • Importance of the Computational Transport Phenomena
  • Strategy of the Computational Transport Phenomena
  • System Geometry and Discretization
  • Solution Methodology
  • Software Packages and Illustration Examples

Appendix A: Vector and Tensor Notation

  • Vector Operations from a Geometrical Viewpoint
  • Vector Operations in Terms of Components
  • Tensor Operations in Terms of Components
  • Vector and Tensor Differential Operations
  • Vector and Tensor Integral Theorems
  • Vector and Tensor Algebra in Curvilinear Coordinates
  • Differential Operations in Curvilinear Coordinates
  • Integral Operations in Curvilinear Coordinates
  • Further Comments on Vector–Tensor Notation

Appendix B: The Fluxes and the Equations of Change

  • Newton’s Law of Viscosity
  • Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction
  • Fick’s (First) Law of Binary Diffusion
  • The Equation of Continuity
  • The Equation of Motion in Terms of t
  • Equation of Motion for a Newtonian Fluid with Constant ρ and μ
  • The Dissipation Function Φv for Newtonian Fluids
  • The Equation of Energy in Terms of q
  • The Equation of Energy for Pure Newtonian Fluids with Constant ρ and k
  • The Equation of Continuity for Species α in Terms of ja
  • The Equation of Continuity for Species A in Terms of ωA for Constant ρ $AB

Appendix C: Mathematical Topics

  • Some Ordinary Differential Equations and their Solutions
  • Expansions of Functions in Taylor Series
  • Differentiation of Integrals (The Leibniz Formula)
  • The Gamma Function
  • The Hyperbolic Functions
  • The Error Function

Appendix D: The Kinetic Theory of Gases

  • The Boltzmann Equation
  • The Equations of Change
  • The Molecular Expressions for the Fluxes
  • The Solution to the Boltzmann Equation
  • The Fluxes in Terms of the Transport Properties
  • The Transport Properties in Terms of the Intermolecular Forces
  • Concluding Comments

Appendix E: Tables for Prediction of Transport Properties

Appendix F: Constants and Conversion Factors

  • Mathematical Constants
  • Physical Constants
  • Conversion Factors

Author Index

Subject Index

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