The Indian Education System: A Potential UPSC Topic for Current Issues (2023)

The Indian Education System: A Potential UPSC Topic for Current Issues (1)

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The Indian Education System has gone through many changes and challenges. Well, there were many challenges which have been faced, though outcomes were sometimes favourable and sometimes not. The Indian Education System works to improve the education facilities in India. Because education is a key factor for a child’s future and the future of the country is in the youth’s hand. There are many loopholes and many problems, where a child is getting an education but not skill.

In this article, we will be discussing the Indian Education System, for the UPSC exam. So, read the full article, because here it will provide you notes for the whole topic. UPSC has many a time asked questions about this topic, and it is a very important topic from the examiner’s point of view. Also as per the present situation, what will be the effects of COVID on the Indian Education System? To get the latest updates, go through the entire article.

Also Read: Salient Features of the Indian Society: Check-out these Important Features for UPSC Exam

Indian Education System: Introduction

Education System in India is mainly governed by the state-public system, which is: federal, state and local government. The Indian Constitution and the Right to Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act,2009, the public can insist on free and compulsory education and this fundamental right is for children from 6 to 14 years of age.

In 2005-2006, there was 83.13 percent of schools were offering elementary education, which was managed by the administration and only 16.86 percent were managed privately. Later, the private education percentage increased and people preferred more private education than the government.

General Details

National education budget4.6% of GDP ($ 138 billion)
Literacy Rate (Male)84.6%
Literacy Rate (Female)70.3%
Literacy Rate (Total)77.7%
Enrollment (Primary)95%
Enrollment (Secondary)69%
Enrollment (Post-secondary)25%

History

The earliest Indian Education was recorded in the 8th century B.C and was in Takshasila. It had started from the age of Buddhism and the Mauryan empire. The institutions used to teach topics like Buddhist Pali literature, Pali grammar, logic and many more topics which were related to everyday life and social values. Chanakya played an important role and was one of the famous teachers in India. His knowledge was divine and that’s why during his period there, the education system was very well handled.

Later, Brahmin gurus and Sammanas offered education by charging fees, funds. After that, the temples and stupas also became the centre for schooling and education. The Sammanas used to impart knowledge about the warrior class, religion, philosophy, etc. The teachings were divided as per the caste in the olden days. The Kshatriya were taught war knowledge, the vaishyas were taught work and trade while the Shudras were deprived of education.

Educational Levels in India

Compulsory Education

StagesCategoryGradeAges
Foundational StagePreschool (Urban) / Anganwadi (Rural)Pre-kindergarten

Kindergarten

2-5

5-6

Preparatory StagePrimary School1st Grade

2nd Grade

3rd Grade

4th Grade

5th Grade

6-7

7-8

8-9

9-10

10-11

Middle StageMiddle School6th Grade

7th Grade

8th Grade

11-12

12-13

13-14

Secondary StageJunior High School

Senior High School

9th Grade

10 Grade

11th Grade

12th Grade

14-15

15-16

16-17

17-18

H4 Higher Education

StagesCategoryGradeAges
College/University/InstituteUndergraduateFirst Year

Second Year

Third Year

Fourth Year

Fifth Year

18-19

19-20

20-21

21-22

22-23

College/University/InstituteGraduate SchoolFirst Year

Second Year

Third Year

21+

22+

23+

Doctorate24+
ResearchPostdoctoral
Continuing EducationVocational School

Adult Education

18 and up

Current Issues in Education in India: UPSC Exam

Here is a list of current issues which might be asked in the UPSC exam.

Expenditure on Education

The funds which are allocated for the Indian System should be increased. There were amendments made in the past few years for the concern regarding expenditure. The steps may be brought into effect soon. The gross enrolment pattern which is followed by the UN must be adopted and implemented in India.

Capacity Utilisation

World, rather than a degree in hand, runs on skill. The government needs to understand this and must encourage schools to boost their programs and help students to develop creatively and skillfully. Their ideas and innovations should be encouraged and displayed.

Infrastructure Facilities

Schools and colleges should provide a better and healthy learning environment and infrastructure. Especially the government schools which are lacking this part. Due to corona times, the government is now focusing on digital and online, so the appropriate facilities should be provided.

PPP Model

PPP or Public-Private Partnership model is to create innovation and bring up creative minds in India. This model is for all the schools and colleges in India.

(Video) Social Issues - Indian Education System - Important Issue for UPSC CSE/IAS Preparation - Roman Saini

Student-Teacher Ratio

The student to teacher ratio is quite imbalanced in India. The search for qualified teachers should be the main priority. Teachers with skilful knowledge and creative minds should be encouraged by them.

Accreditation and Branding

Quality standards should be maintained

Students Studying Abroad

Many students in India, opt for further students abroad because of the faculty, opportunities, infrastructure and many more things which are lacking in India and the education system. Students prefer to learn abroad because there are many loopholes. That’s why India should empower the country through education.

Also Read: Education Qualification for IAS: All You Need to Know About Eligibility Criteria for IAS UPSC Exam

Schemes and Campaigns to Boost Education System in India

This is a list of campaigns that are introduced by the Indian Education System

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan

The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan was launched in 2001 and has the aim of Education for all. It is for strengthening the existing infrastructure of universities and schools.

National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level

It is a concentrated intervention of the Government of India, to attain the “Hardest to Reach” girls, particularly those not in college.

Mid Day Meal Scheme

All the students that are enrolled in government schools are provided with one meal a day in the school. The students who are below the poverty line, who cannot afford nutrition, STCs, etc, section people who are studying in government schools are being provided with this scheme.

Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan

It is a flagship strategy intended for strengthening secondary schooling and boosting the enrolment rate by empowering a secondary school within an adequate distance of every household.

Scheme for Infrastructure Development in Minority Institutes

The strategy would promote schooling of minorities by enhancing and boosting school infrastructure in Minority Institutions in order to improve structures for conventional education to youngsters of minority populations.

Beti Bachao Beti Padhao

The proposal to stimulate girl child education in India. For all those girls, who want to study and empower themselves, the government provides funds and scholarships.

A Change in Indian Education System Due to Corona

Due to the pandemic times, the Indian education system has shaken a lot and has brought in many changes. See the factors that have affected the change.

A Change in the Purpose of Learning

The way of learning and the curriculum may change. The aspects that were considered as main would be changed. There will be a major change to accommodate the life skills. Skills like collaboration, communication, empathy, resilience, adaptability and emotional intelligence. This is what will now be encouraged in school and new purposes will be brought up.

The Utilization of Innovative Methods of Education

Well, the learning will be the same but new methods might be adopted. Education has been shifted from offline to online, and this has created a revolution in the world. Integrated and experiential learning will be implemented in the learning system.

A Focus on Bigger Issues

Issues related to the environment, global warming, women empowerment, etc, will be taught and brought up in the education system so that we can adapt to a better future and also learning will be implemented in a moral and ethical way.

Also Read: Sutra Model for Corona: Must-know Facts about the Model for the Upcoming UPSC Exam

Conclusion

Hopefully, this article has provided you with all the information relating to the Indian education system. This article is very important from the UPSC point of view. Corona has opened many new topics for the UPSC to pick from and education in India is one of them. It can be asked in current affairs or in the history of the Indian Education system. One needs to thoroughly prepare this topic during the UPSC exam preparation.

There are more articles provided on UPSC Pathshala, where you can dive into important topics and boost your UPSC exam preparation. There are many notes and courses one will find on this website. Aspirants who are looking for online courses can click here.

If you have any queries regarding the courses, please feel free to drop them in the comments section below.

(Video) Education System in India | How it affects Employment? | UPSC Current Affairs | ASER Report

Also Read: What is Mission Indradhanush: A Potential UPSC Topic Related to Covid-19 Vaccine

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The Indian Education System: A Potential UPSC Topic for Current Issues

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The Indian Education System is known by all. But, in-depth study and analysis are important for UPSC examination. A potential topic, so to know everything for UPSC preparation, jump in.

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Shilpa Dutta

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UPSC Pathshala

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5 Comments

  1. The Indian Education System: A Potential UPSC Topic for Current Issues (5)

    ajey singhvion June 16, 2021

    Thank you for providing such a wonderful article on the indian education system, which is an important topic, is there any effect on indian education system due to corona, what do you guys think are the effects?

    Reply

  2. The Indian Education System: A Potential UPSC Topic for Current Issues (6)

    Mehul Banerjeeon July 1, 2021

    Corona has made changes in the whole education system and ways of teaching. This article had helped me to know about the education system in India. If you have any sort of dilemma, do ask it.

    (Video) The Indian Education System Has Failed | FMF

    Reply

  3. The Indian Education System: A Potential UPSC Topic for Current Issues (7)

    Mehul Banerjeeon July 1, 2021

    Corona has made changes in the whole education system and ways of teaching. This article is informative for me to provide me the knowledge about the education system in India. If you have any sort of dilemma, do ask it.

    Reply

  4. The Indian Education System: A Potential UPSC Topic for Current Issues (8)

    Mehul Banerjeeon July 1, 2021

    Corona has made changes in the whole education system and ways of teaching. It is informative for me to provide me the knowledge about the education system in India. If you have any sort of dilemma, do ask it.

    Reply

  5. The Indian Education System: A Potential UPSC Topic for Current Issues (9)

    Ranu mishraon July 1, 2021

    This article has helped me a lot in growing the information about the education system in India. The pandemic has changed the whole system of education and ways of teaching. Do you think the same or have any point to ask ?

    Reply

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About the Author

Shilpa

Shilpa is a professional web content writer and is in deep love with travelling. She completed her mass communication degree and is now dedicatedly playing with words to guide her readers to get the best for themselves. Developing educational content for UPSC, IELTS aspirants from breakthrough research work is her forte.Strongly driven by her zodiac sign Sagittarius, Shilpa loves to live her life on her own notes and completely agrees with the idea of ‘live and let live. Apart from writing and travelling, most of the time she can be seen in the avatar of 'hooman' mom to her pets and street dogs or else you can also catch her wearing the toque blanche and creating magic in the kitchen on weekends.

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(Video) Indian Education System is the Biggest Scam | By Nitish Rajput

FAQs

What are the current issues of Indian education? ›

Top 5 Challenges of The Indian Education System and How to Move on With Them?
  • Lack Of Resources. ...
  • Bigger Focus Is on The English Language. ...
  • Neglection Of the Practice. ...
  • Educators Put Students to A Lot of Pressure. ...
  • Questionable Quality of Teachers. ...
  • Conclusion.
7 Mar 2022

Why is education important Upsc? ›

Education provides them required knowledge, technique, skill and information and enables them to know their rights and duties towards their family, their society and towards their motherland at large.

Why is Indian education system important? ›

Education is a very important factor in the economic development of any country. India since the early days of independence has always focused on improving the literacy rate in our country. Even today the government runs many programs to promote Primary and Higher Education in India.

What is the biggest problem in education today? ›

Social divide – There is no fair learning access in the country. Lack of resources – Large-scale shortfalls in classrooms, teachers, and other tools to sustain sound learning also make up a big issue.

What do you know about current educational issues facing primary education today? ›

Pupil Wellbeing and mental health

Increasing behavioural issues in pupils. Not enough emphasis on wellbeing and social and emotional skills for workplaces and life. Teachers are expected to be pseudo-social workers without training or funding. Lack of pupil resilience and increased anxiety in post-pandemic pupils.

What are the current trends and issues in education? ›

Some of the issues receiving the most attention include the use of standardized testing, equity in education, and the use of adaptive learning in the classroom. Standardized tests are examinations that are given to students and scored in the same way in classrooms across the country.

What are the emerging issues in education? ›

It has delved in the synopsis of emerging issues such as teacher shortage, provision of quality education, professionalizing the teaching service, promotion of teachers, teachers conduct and performance, litigation, information, communication and technology integration, management of HIV and AIDS, industrial unrest, ...

What is the greatest challenge today's students face 2022? ›

The 6 Biggest Challenges Facing Children in 2022
  1. Children Living in Conflict Zones. ...
  2. Unprecedented Global Hunger. ...
  3. Two Years of Disrupted Education. ...
  4. Climate Change. ...
  5. Children Crossing Borders. ...
  6. Child Mortality Due to COVID-19.

What is Indian education system? ›

The school system in India has four levels: lower primary (age 6 to 10), upper primary (11 and 12), high (13 to 15) and higher secondary (17 and 18). The lower primary school is divided into five “standards”, upper primary school into two, high school into three and higher secondary into two.

Why education system is important? ›

Education helps a person hone their communication skills by learning how to read, write, speak and listen. Education develops critical thinking. This is vital in teaching a person how to use logic when making decisions and interacting with people (e.g., boosting creativity, enhancing time management).

What is the new education system? ›

In April 2022, the UGC (University Grants Commission) approved simultaneous dual degrees, both in physical and online modes. In October 2022, Ministry of Education released New Curriculum Framework for 3-8 years children and National Credit Framework inline of NEP 2020.

How Indian education system can be improved? ›

Rural education

There are very few learning centers and schools are found in the rural areas. So, improving the rural education is highly essential in India. It is one of major ways to develop the Indian education system. More schools, learning centers, libraries need to be developed.

Who made Indian education system? ›

The modern school system was brought to India, originally by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay, in the 1830s. “Modern” subjects like science and mathematics took precedence, and metaphysics and philosophy were deemed unnecessary.

How can we solve education problems in India? ›

Nobody is able to solve the problems in their studies at home as other members of family are illiterate.
...
  1. Adoption of technology. ...
  2. Teacher training. ...
  3. More government spending. ...
  4. Inclusive education system. ...
  5. Quality education. ...
  6. PPP model. ...
  7. IES. ...
  8. Education policy.

What is the biggest challenge faced by students today pandemic? ›

College students are facing enormous challenges related to the pandemic, including feelings of isolation, an excess of free time, and unreliable internet connections. Learning during a pandemic is a unique experience to say the least.

How can we solve the problem of education system? ›

Put classroom-running and curriculum-building decisions in the hands of the community.
  1. Acknowledge and address overcrowding. ...
  2. Make funding schools a priority. ...
  3. Address the school-to-prison pipeline. ...
  4. Raise standards for teachers. ...
  5. Put classroom-running and curriculum-building decisions in the hands of the community.
7 Apr 2019

What are the global issues in education? ›

One in six adults on the planet cannot read or write. Some 600 million women and 300 million men, 99 percent of them in the developing countries, remain illiterate. Some 115 million children between six and eleven—one in five—are not in school.

What are the current trends in educational technology? ›

Game-based learning is one of the most popular emerging trends in educational technology. With game-based learning, students play (digital or non-digital) games that teach or reinforce specific concepts and skills.

Why should we study the current trends of education? ›

It is important to keep up with current trends in education since they determine what is currently accepted to be the best way to teach students. However, just like some fashion trends can be ridiculous passing fads, some trends in education may also change rapidly.

Which topic is popular as an educational topic in the 21st century? ›

Experts believe that 21st century learning requires some core competencies like collaboration, critical thinking, digital literacy and problem-solving that is requisite for students to thrive in today's world.

What are social educational issues? ›

Some problems like illiteracy, social tension and gender discrimination are well known. Educational problems refer to issues of school dropout, stagnation and wastage. They are also social problems. This lesson will help you understand the psychological aspects of some important social problems faced in the society.

What are the four major problems of students? ›

Common Issues
  • Social anxiety, general anxiety, test anxiety, or panic attacks.
  • Family expectations or problems.
  • Depression, lack of energy or motivation, hopelessness, being overwhelmed, low self-esteem, homesickness, loneliness.
  • Relationship difficulties (emotional and physical aspects of intimate relationships)

What is the biggest problem facing the youth today? ›

Stress & Time Management. Managing the pressure to succeed in every area of life and finding time to do it all seems to be one of the biggest challenges facing the youth today. Young people are expected to be successful, yet few of them are aware of effective time management.

What are the problems faced by students during Covid 19? ›

Students have been affected psychologically by school closures, lack of equipment to participate in courses, being unable to access online materials from home and being unable to leave home for a long time (Apriyanti, 2020).

What are the 3 systems of education? ›

It is all about gaining experience and therefore we can divide education into three main types: Formal Education. Informal Education. Non-formal Education.

Who is the education of India 2022? ›

Latest News : Mr Dharmendra Pradhan, Honorable Minister of Education of India will receive th 14th February 2022 Mr Schönenberger Claudius, Professor in France who revolutionize the learning process of Indian History by the launching of Evnseries.com on last Diwali.

What is good in Indian education system? ›

Compulsory Education is one of the best features of the modern education system in India. Every child has to pass class 10th to get employment or higher studies. As a result, you will find that all poor children are getting equal opportunity to learn in school.

What is effective education system? ›

A successful education system should be based on the psychological comfort and equality; children should be inspired by teachers to work effectively by the interesting learning process and interactive tools in the educational process.

What are the benefits of New Education Policy 2022? ›

The main aim of launching the National Education Policy 2022 is to remodel India's education policy. Under this new national education policy, nobody is forced to take any particular language. Now the students can choose the language according to their interests.

How many education policies are there in India? ›

India has a total of 4 education policies to date. The first policy was formulated in 1968 and the second in 1986.

What is national education system? ›

National System of Education means, up to a particular level every student irrespective of location, caste, gender or belief have contact to education of a similar class. For obtaining the quality the authority will make the first move to fund the plans.

What changes can be made in education system? ›

Indian Education System: What Needs to be Changed for Quality...
  • Encourage Research Work. ...
  • Introduction to Different Opportunities. ...
  • Smart Educators. ...
  • Technology Trends. ...
  • One to One Education. ...
  • Irradicate Reservation. ...
  • Co-Curricular Activities.

How can we improve Indian education system Quora? ›

Building more schools : There should be school in every corner of India so that every person can go to learn. Better Teachers : Our current govt. schools tend to have very bad teacher who don't teach or even come to teach (not all but many). There should be a system of rating that judges these teachers.

Who is father of education? ›

Known as the “father of American education,” Horace Mann (1796–1859), a major force behind establishing unified school systems, worked to establish a varied curriculum that excluded sectarian instruction.

Who is father of modern education? ›

John Amos Comenius, Father of Modern Education | Moravian College.

Where does Indian education system stand? ›

Education Rankings by Country 2022
CountryRank (2021)Rank (2020)
India3234
South Africa3332
Argentina3429
Saudi Arabia3546
73 more rows

What is lack in Indian education system? ›

Lack of practical knowledge

Bookish knowledge is the prime motto of the Indian education system. The focus is given on the theoretical knowledge only not on practical knowledge.

What is the new education policy 2022? ›

The new NEP is based on four pillars which are Access, Equity, Quality, and Accountability. In this new policy, there will be a 5+3+3+4 structure which comprises 12 years of school and 3 years of Anganwadi/ pre-school replacing old 10+2 structure.

What is the problem of education during pandemic? ›

(2020) found in their research that the lack of knowledge, skills and devices, internet connection, irrelevance and issues with system access were the problems experienced by teachers and students in the Covid-19 pandemic. The third of the themes revealed at the end of the study was impossibility.

What are the problems faced by students during COVID-19 in India? ›

Fear of spread of the COVID-19, disciplinary lockdown, and delay in getting back to the normal routine of education centers is affecting the academic performance of the students, as they are facing difficulties to cope up with the new mode of learning.

What are the problems faced by students in school? ›

Some school problems you might worry about include:
  • finding schoolwork difficult, or having problems concentrating in class if others are noisy and disruptive.
  • exam stress.
  • tricky relationships with friends and friendship groups.
  • finding lunchtime difficult, particularly if you have eating problems, anorexia or bulimia.

What are the problems student face in their studies? ›

Low motivation may be experienced either for certain subjects, or across the board; some of the common causes of it include: You are tired and stressed, with too much to do. There are other, more interesting things to do. You find the subject boring, or don't enjoy it for some other reason.

What is the biggest challenge faced by students today pandemic? ›

College students are facing enormous challenges related to the pandemic, including feelings of isolation, an excess of free time, and unreliable internet connections. Learning during a pandemic is a unique experience to say the least.

How pandemic affects the education system around the world? ›

The COVID-19 pandemic has created the largest disruption of education systems in history, affecting nearly 1.6 billion learners in more than 190 countries and all conti- nents.

How the pandemic affect the students? ›

The pandemic had also caused psychological stress among the students, making it difficult for them to focus on studying. They expressed feelings of anxiety, burnout, loneliness, homesickness, grief, and hopelessness.

How pandemic affect education in India? ›

The pandemic caused further shocks to the system with schools forced to shut down during the lockdown period, and the transition of students and teachers to online teaching-learning. In India, around 250 million students were affected due to school closures at the onset of lockdown induced by COVID-19.

What are the problems faced during online classes? ›

Best online course platform
  • Problems faced by students in online classes.
  • Lack of motivation.
  • Lack of in-person interaction.
  • Lack of discipline.
  • Lack of digital literacy.
  • Technical issues.
  • To sum it up:
25 May 2022

Why in India Social problems are growing? ›

The heterogeneous nature of the Indian population has been the cause of a number of social problems in India. The multi-religious nature of society and conflict among the different religions has given rise to the problem of communalism in India.

What is the greatest challenge today's students face 2022? ›

The 6 Biggest Challenges Facing Children in 2022
  1. Children Living in Conflict Zones. ...
  2. Unprecedented Global Hunger. ...
  3. Two Years of Disrupted Education. ...
  4. Climate Change. ...
  5. Children Crossing Borders. ...
  6. Child Mortality Due to COVID-19.

What are the 4 major problems of students? ›

Common Issues
  • Social anxiety, general anxiety, test anxiety, or panic attacks.
  • Family expectations or problems.
  • Depression, lack of energy or motivation, hopelessness, being overwhelmed, low self-esteem, homesickness, loneliness.
  • Relationship difficulties (emotional and physical aspects of intimate relationships)

What is your top 5 problems? ›

Let's take a look at those issues.
  • Health Crisis. There comes a time in your life when you are not healthy. ...
  • Workplace Issues. Of course, everyone gets to work when the time and opportunity are there. ...
  • Emptiness. ...
  • Friendship Issues. ...
  • Failure. ...
  • Financial Crisis. ...
  • Career Pressure. ...
  • Unfair Treatment.

What is the greatest challenge facing teachers today? ›

10 Challenges Of Teaching & How To Overcome Them
  1. Understanding the different learning challenges amongst students. ...
  2. Student family problems & bullying. ...
  3. Lack of funding. ...
  4. Lack of effective communication. ...
  5. Being encouraging and motivating under challenging times. ...
  6. Disciplining students. ...
  7. Endless paperwork & extended working hours.

What are the challenges of the 21st century education? ›

Technological, demographic, social, environmental, economic and political shifts are forcing us to redefine what our educational structure should be. The discussion has also widened from the inner circles of curriculum experts and researchers to the broader public.

What are social problems in schools? ›

Issues include but are not limited to poverty, achievement motivation, dropouts, homelessness, teen pregnancy and parenting, eating disorders, obsesity, child abuse, substance abuse, physical and mental abuse, gang violence, bullying, HIV/AIDS, and suicide.

Videos

1. New Education Policy 2020 | NEP 2020
(Priya Jain)
2. Ministry of Education launches New India Literacy Program. Why is it needed? | UPSC Current Affairs
(StudyIQ IAS)
3. Issues and Challenges of Indian Education |For B.ed/Understanding Disciplines and Subjects| By Anil
(Educationphile)
4. Why Degrees Don't Get us Jobs? || Nitish Rajput
(Nitish Rajput)
5. New Education Policy | Analysis by Dhruv Rathee
(Dhruv Rathee)
6. Group discussion ∆ Indian education system is good or bad? ∆ Dev Spoken English
(Dev Spoken English)
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